Moore found that young male problem gamblers sometimes have unrealistic ideas about their chances of winning and of their ability to influence outcomes Gender differences exist in vulnerability to addiction This can be because smoking is perceived to control weight, smokers weigh on average 7lb less than non-smokers and people who quit smoking gain about 6 lb With gambling on the other hand, Jacobs has found that males gamble more regularly than girls
What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers.
Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual.
Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions Addiction notes psya4 as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction? Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops. In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred.
Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking. Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person.
From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix. Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours.
Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts. A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets.
There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious. Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed.Describing addiction: physical and psychological dependence, tolerance and withdrawal syndrome.
Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. PSYA4 - Addiction, Depression & Research Methods - Revision Notes (43 pages) 43 page set of in depth notes on topics in PSYA4 - Addiction, Depression and RM.
Addiction Addiction Abstract Addiction knows no prejudice; it does not care what race, religion, sex or orientation.
You can be addicted to drugs, gambling, x-box, shopping and eating. Addiction is an illness that requires, for most, professional help and that once you are an addict you are always an addict. To conclude, the biological explanation can be seen as a strong explanation for the initiation, maintenance and relapse of smoking addiction, however, the belief that genes dictate ones behaviour is largely deterministic as it removes free will.
Jun 14, · This will reinforce their addiction and make it harder for them to seek out to help themselves. addictions psychology aqa addictive behaviour psychology aqa Outline one biological intervention for reducing addictive behaviour and evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention psya4 addictions Psya4 January Melanie ★.
This is my attempt at revision notes for the addiction topic. A lot of the material is taken from other notes found on here, but I have added some studies for evaluation of the explanations for different addictions/stages.